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YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI

Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 2, 93 - 103, 26.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.908179

Abstract

Yer altı kömür gazlaştırma (YKG) tekniği, geleneksel yöntemler ile üretilmeye uygun olmayan kömür yataklarının değerlendirilmesi ve kömürden daha temiz yollarla enerji elde edilmesi amaçlarıyla uygulanmaktadır. YKG tekniği, yüz yılı aşkın bir süredir gerek laboratuvar gerekse gerçek saha ölçeklerinde denenmiş ve literatüre çeşitli çalışmalar kazandırılmıştır. Bazı kömür sahalarında pilot uygulamalar, bazılarındaysa ticari ölçekte YKG operasyonları yürütülmüştür. Bu operasyonlar sırasında elde edilen deneyimler, tekniğin uygulanabilirliği açısından bazı yöntemlerin geliştirilmesini ve saha seçim kriterlerinin ortaya konulabilmesini sağlamıştır. Bu çalışmada bu yöntemler ve kriterler incelenmiştir. YKG sırasında karşılaşılan bazı önemli sorunlar ve bu sorunlara karşı alınabilecek mühendislik önlemleri aktarılmıştır. Bu zamana kadar gerçekleştirilen saha çalışmalarına dair genel bilgiler paylaşılmış ve önemli görülen denemelere dair ayrıntılı bilgiler verilmiştir.

References

  • Antonova, R. I., Garkusha, I. S., Gershevich, E. G., Kreinin, E. V., Govroy, N. V., Semenenko, D. K., & Fedorov. (1967). Study of some regular parameters of underground coal gasification. Khim. Tverd. Topl.
  • Bartke, T. C., Fischer, D. D., King, S. B., Boyd, R. M., & Humphrey, A. E. (1985). Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Data Base. Volume 1. General Information and Executive Summary. Içinde Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Data Base.
  • Basu, P. (2018). Gasification theory. Içinde P. Basu (Ed.), Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction: Practical Design and Theory (3. baskı, ss. 211–262). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812992-0.00007-8
  • Beath, A., Craig, S., Littleboy, A., Mark, R., & Mallett, C. (2004). Underground Coal Gasification : Evaluating Environmental Barriers. CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship report, August.
  • Bhutto, A. W., Bazmi, A. A., & Zahedi, G. (2013). Underground coal gasification: From fundamentals to applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 39(1), 189–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2012.09.004
  • Blinderman, M. S., & Anderson, B. (2004). Underground Coal Gasification for Power Generation: High Efficiency and CO2-Emissions. ASME 2004 Power Conference, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1115/POWER2004-52036
  • Blinderman, M. S., & Klimenko, A. Y. (2018). Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion. Woodhead Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2014-0-03452-1
  • Blinderman, M. S., Saulov, D. N., & Klimenko, A. Y. (2008). Exergy optimisation of reverse combustion linking in underground coal gasification. Journal of the Energy Institute, 81(1), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1179/174602208X269427
  • Burton, E., Friedmann, J., & Upadhye, R. (2006). Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification. Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
  • Camp, D. W. (2017). Underground coal gasification research and development in the United States. Içinde Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (Sayı June). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100313-8.00004-9
  • Camp, & White, J. A. (2015). Underground Coal Gasification: An Overview of Groundwater Contamination Hazards and Mitigation Strategies. Içinde Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Sayı March).
  • Chandelle, V., Li, T.-K., Ledent, P., Patigny, J., Henquet, H., Kowol, K., Masson, G., & Mostade, M. (1989). Belgo German experiment on underground gasification. Içinde Commission of the European Communities - Energy.
  • Crombrugghe, O. (1959). Underground Gasification (of Coal) in the U.S.S.R.
  • Edwani, S. H. (1985). The expression, simulation and appraisal of the thermo-physical model on the underground coal gasification. Collect. Translate. Works Min. Technol.
  • EIA. (2017). Country Analysis Brief: Australia. Içinde U.S. Energy Information Administration.
  • Fei, M. (2016). Underground coal gasification (UCG): A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels. Natural Gas Industry B, 3(4), 312–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2016.12.007
  • Gregg, D. W., & Edgar, T. F. (1978). Underground Coal Gasifacation. AIChE Journal, 24(5), 753–781.
  • Gregg, D. W., Hill, R. W., & Olness, D. U. (1976). An Overview of the Soviet Effort in Underground Coal Gasification.
  • Gunn, R. D. (1977). Problems Solved and Problems Not Solved in Ucg. Am Chem Soc Div Fuel Chem Prepr, 22(4), 64–75.
  • Jiang, L., Chen, Z., & Ali, S. M. F. (2017). Modelling of reverse combustion linking in underground coal gasification. Fuel, 207, 302–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.097
  • Klimenko, A. Y. (2009). Early ideas in underground coal gasification and their evolution. Energies, 2(2), 456–476. https://doi.org/10.3390/en20200456
  • Li, Y., Liang, X., & Liang, J. (2007). An overview of the Chinese UCG program. Data Science Journal, 6(SUPPL.), 460–466. https://doi.org/10.2481/dsj.6.S460
  • Liu, S., Li, J., Mei, M., & Dong, D. (2007). Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, 17(4), 467–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(07)60127-8
  • Liu, S., Liang, J., Yu, X., & Lu, L. (2003). Characteristics of underground gasification of different kinds of coal. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, 32.
  • Mallett, C. W. (2018). Environmental controls for underground coal gasification. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 232(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957650917723733
  • Matveev, V. A. (1957). A Brief Report of Results and of the Most Pressing Problems in the Field of Underground Gasification of Coal. National Coal Board.
  • Mocek, P., Pieszczek, M., Świadrowski, J., Kapusta, K., Wiatowski, M., & Stańczyk, K. (2016). Pilot-scale underground coal gasification (UCG) experiment in an operating Mine “Wieczorek” in Poland. Energy, 111, 313–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.087
  • Monk, F., Hallowes, D., Moore, K., & Ross, L. (2016). Fuelling the fire: the chequered history of Underground Coal Gasification and Coal Chemicals around the world.
  • MTA. (2020). MTA. https://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/arastirmalar/komur-arama-arastirmalari
  • Oliver, R. L., Mason, G. M., & Spackman, L. K. (1989). Field and Laboratory Results from the Tono I (CRIP) UCG Cavity Excavation Project, Widco Mine Site, Centralia, Washington. Fuel Science and Technology International, 7(8), 1059–1120. https://doi.org/10.1080/08843758908962281
  • Olness, D. (1978). The Underground Coal Gasification Station at Lisichansk.
  • Olness, D. (1981a). The Podmoskovnaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.
  • Olness, D. (1981b). The Shatskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.
  • Olness, D. (1982). The Angrenskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station. LLNL Publications.
  • Olness, D., & Gregg, D. W. (1977). The Historical Development of Underground Coal Gasification.
  • Perkins, G. (2018a). Underground coal gasification – Part I: Field demonstrations and process performance. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 67, 158–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2018.02.004
  • Perkins, G. (2018b). Underground coal gasification – Part II: Fundamental phenomena and modeling. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 67, 234–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2018.03.002
  • Perkins, G., du Toit, E., Cochrane, G., & Bollaert, G. (2016). Overview of underground coal gasification operations at Chinchilla, Australia. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 38(24), 3639–3646. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2016.1188184
  • Ranade, V., Mahajani, S., & Samdani, G. (2019). Computational modeling of underground coal gasification. Içinde Computational Modeling of Underground Coal Gasification. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315107967
  • S. S. Lan, F. M. F. (1989). Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification test.
  • Sarhosis, V., Kapusta, K., & Lavis, S. (2018). Underground coal gasification (UCG) in Europe: Field trials, laboratory experiments, and EU-funded projects. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (ss. 129–171). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Shafirovich, E., & Varma, A. (2009). Underground coal gasification: A brief review of current status. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(17), 7865–7875. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie801569r
  • TEİAŞ. (2020). Türkiye Elektrik Üretim-İletim 2019 Yılı İstatistikleri. https://www.teias.gov.tr/tr-TR/turkiye-elektrik-uretim-iletim-istatistikleri
  • The Queensland Government. (2016, Nisan). Underground coal gasification banned in Queensland - Ministerial Media Statements.
  • TKİ. (2020). Dünya ve Türkiye Kömür Kaynak ve Rezerv Durumu. https://www.tki.gov.tr/tr-TR/istatistikler
  • Walker, L. (2018). The development of UCG in Australia. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (ss. 173–208). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Wiatowski, M., Kapusta, K., ͆wiądrowski, J., Cybulski, K., Ludwik-Pardała, M., Grabowski, J., & Stańczyk, K. (2015). Technological aspects of underground coal gasification in the Experimental “barbara” Mine. Fuel, 159, 454–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.07.001
  • Yang, L. H. (2008). A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 30(11), 1038–1049. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030601082803

A GENERAL REVIEW OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION WITH MAJOR FIELD APPLICATIONS

Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 2, 93 - 103, 26.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.908179

Abstract

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a promising method to utilize deep coal resources that cannot be extracted with conventional techniques and to produce relatively cleaner energy from coal. There have been several laboratory and pilot-scale experiments conducted on UCG within hundred years. Some field-scale trials were conducted for experimental purposes, on the other hand, some others were applied for commercial interests. During these trials, the energy industry has built up experience, developed field demonstration strategies and put forward screening criteria for applicable field selection. In this study, UCG field demonstration strategies, and screening criteria are investigated. Some problems that are encountered with UCG were analyzed, and the engineering precautions are underlined. General information regarding all field trials is summarized, and some important trials are given in detail.

References

  • Antonova, R. I., Garkusha, I. S., Gershevich, E. G., Kreinin, E. V., Govroy, N. V., Semenenko, D. K., & Fedorov. (1967). Study of some regular parameters of underground coal gasification. Khim. Tverd. Topl.
  • Bartke, T. C., Fischer, D. D., King, S. B., Boyd, R. M., & Humphrey, A. E. (1985). Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Data Base. Volume 1. General Information and Executive Summary. Içinde Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Data Base.
  • Basu, P. (2018). Gasification theory. Içinde P. Basu (Ed.), Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction: Practical Design and Theory (3. baskı, ss. 211–262). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812992-0.00007-8
  • Beath, A., Craig, S., Littleboy, A., Mark, R., & Mallett, C. (2004). Underground Coal Gasification : Evaluating Environmental Barriers. CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship report, August.
  • Bhutto, A. W., Bazmi, A. A., & Zahedi, G. (2013). Underground coal gasification: From fundamentals to applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 39(1), 189–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2012.09.004
  • Blinderman, M. S., & Anderson, B. (2004). Underground Coal Gasification for Power Generation: High Efficiency and CO2-Emissions. ASME 2004 Power Conference, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1115/POWER2004-52036
  • Blinderman, M. S., & Klimenko, A. Y. (2018). Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion. Woodhead Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2014-0-03452-1
  • Blinderman, M. S., Saulov, D. N., & Klimenko, A. Y. (2008). Exergy optimisation of reverse combustion linking in underground coal gasification. Journal of the Energy Institute, 81(1), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1179/174602208X269427
  • Burton, E., Friedmann, J., & Upadhye, R. (2006). Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification. Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
  • Camp, D. W. (2017). Underground coal gasification research and development in the United States. Içinde Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (Sayı June). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100313-8.00004-9
  • Camp, & White, J. A. (2015). Underground Coal Gasification: An Overview of Groundwater Contamination Hazards and Mitigation Strategies. Içinde Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Sayı March).
  • Chandelle, V., Li, T.-K., Ledent, P., Patigny, J., Henquet, H., Kowol, K., Masson, G., & Mostade, M. (1989). Belgo German experiment on underground gasification. Içinde Commission of the European Communities - Energy.
  • Crombrugghe, O. (1959). Underground Gasification (of Coal) in the U.S.S.R.
  • Edwani, S. H. (1985). The expression, simulation and appraisal of the thermo-physical model on the underground coal gasification. Collect. Translate. Works Min. Technol.
  • EIA. (2017). Country Analysis Brief: Australia. Içinde U.S. Energy Information Administration.
  • Fei, M. (2016). Underground coal gasification (UCG): A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels. Natural Gas Industry B, 3(4), 312–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2016.12.007
  • Gregg, D. W., & Edgar, T. F. (1978). Underground Coal Gasifacation. AIChE Journal, 24(5), 753–781.
  • Gregg, D. W., Hill, R. W., & Olness, D. U. (1976). An Overview of the Soviet Effort in Underground Coal Gasification.
  • Gunn, R. D. (1977). Problems Solved and Problems Not Solved in Ucg. Am Chem Soc Div Fuel Chem Prepr, 22(4), 64–75.
  • Jiang, L., Chen, Z., & Ali, S. M. F. (2017). Modelling of reverse combustion linking in underground coal gasification. Fuel, 207, 302–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.097
  • Klimenko, A. Y. (2009). Early ideas in underground coal gasification and their evolution. Energies, 2(2), 456–476. https://doi.org/10.3390/en20200456
  • Li, Y., Liang, X., & Liang, J. (2007). An overview of the Chinese UCG program. Data Science Journal, 6(SUPPL.), 460–466. https://doi.org/10.2481/dsj.6.S460
  • Liu, S., Li, J., Mei, M., & Dong, D. (2007). Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, 17(4), 467–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(07)60127-8
  • Liu, S., Liang, J., Yu, X., & Lu, L. (2003). Characteristics of underground gasification of different kinds of coal. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, 32.
  • Mallett, C. W. (2018). Environmental controls for underground coal gasification. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 232(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957650917723733
  • Matveev, V. A. (1957). A Brief Report of Results and of the Most Pressing Problems in the Field of Underground Gasification of Coal. National Coal Board.
  • Mocek, P., Pieszczek, M., Świadrowski, J., Kapusta, K., Wiatowski, M., & Stańczyk, K. (2016). Pilot-scale underground coal gasification (UCG) experiment in an operating Mine “Wieczorek” in Poland. Energy, 111, 313–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.087
  • Monk, F., Hallowes, D., Moore, K., & Ross, L. (2016). Fuelling the fire: the chequered history of Underground Coal Gasification and Coal Chemicals around the world.
  • MTA. (2020). MTA. https://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/arastirmalar/komur-arama-arastirmalari
  • Oliver, R. L., Mason, G. M., & Spackman, L. K. (1989). Field and Laboratory Results from the Tono I (CRIP) UCG Cavity Excavation Project, Widco Mine Site, Centralia, Washington. Fuel Science and Technology International, 7(8), 1059–1120. https://doi.org/10.1080/08843758908962281
  • Olness, D. (1978). The Underground Coal Gasification Station at Lisichansk.
  • Olness, D. (1981a). The Podmoskovnaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.
  • Olness, D. (1981b). The Shatskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.
  • Olness, D. (1982). The Angrenskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station. LLNL Publications.
  • Olness, D., & Gregg, D. W. (1977). The Historical Development of Underground Coal Gasification.
  • Perkins, G. (2018a). Underground coal gasification – Part I: Field demonstrations and process performance. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 67, 158–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2018.02.004
  • Perkins, G. (2018b). Underground coal gasification – Part II: Fundamental phenomena and modeling. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 67, 234–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2018.03.002
  • Perkins, G., du Toit, E., Cochrane, G., & Bollaert, G. (2016). Overview of underground coal gasification operations at Chinchilla, Australia. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 38(24), 3639–3646. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2016.1188184
  • Ranade, V., Mahajani, S., & Samdani, G. (2019). Computational modeling of underground coal gasification. Içinde Computational Modeling of Underground Coal Gasification. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315107967
  • S. S. Lan, F. M. F. (1989). Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification test.
  • Sarhosis, V., Kapusta, K., & Lavis, S. (2018). Underground coal gasification (UCG) in Europe: Field trials, laboratory experiments, and EU-funded projects. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (ss. 129–171). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Shafirovich, E., & Varma, A. (2009). Underground coal gasification: A brief review of current status. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(17), 7865–7875. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie801569r
  • TEİAŞ. (2020). Türkiye Elektrik Üretim-İletim 2019 Yılı İstatistikleri. https://www.teias.gov.tr/tr-TR/turkiye-elektrik-uretim-iletim-istatistikleri
  • The Queensland Government. (2016, Nisan). Underground coal gasification banned in Queensland - Ministerial Media Statements.
  • TKİ. (2020). Dünya ve Türkiye Kömür Kaynak ve Rezerv Durumu. https://www.tki.gov.tr/tr-TR/istatistikler
  • Walker, L. (2018). The development of UCG in Australia. Içinde M. S. Blinderman & A. Y. Klimenko (Ed.), Underground Coal Gasification and Combustion (ss. 173–208). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Wiatowski, M., Kapusta, K., ͆wiądrowski, J., Cybulski, K., Ludwik-Pardała, M., Grabowski, J., & Stańczyk, K. (2015). Technological aspects of underground coal gasification in the Experimental “barbara” Mine. Fuel, 159, 454–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.07.001
  • Yang, L. H. (2008). A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 30(11), 1038–1049. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030601082803

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Collection
Authors

Sarp KILIÇKAP> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2275-5880
Türkiye


İsmail SARIÇAM>
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8508-851X
Türkiye


Muharrem ÇEVİK>
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2327-9660
Türkiye


Murat CİNAR>
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9887-0666
Türkiye

Publication Date June 26, 2022
Submission Date April 2, 2021
Acceptance Date December 7, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @review { madencilik908179, journal = {Scientific Mining Journal}, issn = {2564-7024}, eissn = {2587-2613}, address = {Selanik Cad. No: 19/4 06650 Kızılay-Çankaya / ANKARA - TURKEY}, publisher = {Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey}, year = {2022}, volume = {61}, number = {2}, pages = {93 - 103}, doi = {10.30797/madencilik.908179}, title = {YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI}, key = {cite}, author = {Kılıçkap, Sarp and Sarıçam, İsmail and Çevik, Muharrem and Cinar, Murat} }
APA Kılıçkap, S. , Sarıçam, İ. , Çevik, M. & Cinar, M. (2022). YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI . Scientific Mining Journal , 61 (2) , 93-103 . DOI: 10.30797/madencilik.908179
MLA Kılıçkap, S. , Sarıçam, İ. , Çevik, M. , Cinar, M. "YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI" . Scientific Mining Journal 61 (2022 ): 93-103 <http://www.mining.org.tr/en/pub/issue/70541/908179>
Chicago Kılıçkap, S. , Sarıçam, İ. , Çevik, M. , Cinar, M. "YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI". Scientific Mining Journal 61 (2022 ): 93-103
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A GENERAL REVIEW OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION WITH MAJOR FIELD APPLICATIONS AU - SarpKılıçkap, İsmailSarıçam, MuharremÇevik, MuratCinar Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.30797/madencilik.908179 DO - 10.30797/madencilik.908179 T2 - Scientific Mining Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 93 EP - 103 VL - 61 IS - 2 SN - 2564-7024-2587-2613 M3 - doi: 10.30797/madencilik.908179 UR - https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.908179 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Scientific Mining Journal YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI %A Sarp Kılıçkap , İsmail Sarıçam , Muharrem Çevik , Murat Cinar %T YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI %D 2022 %J Scientific Mining Journal %P 2564-7024-2587-2613 %V 61 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30797/madencilik.908179 %U 10.30797/madencilik.908179
ISNAD Kılıçkap, Sarp , Sarıçam, İsmail , Çevik, Muharrem , Cinar, Murat . "YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI". Scientific Mining Journal 61 / 2 (June 2022): 93-103 . https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.908179
AMA Kılıçkap S. , Sarıçam İ. , Çevik M. , Cinar M. YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI. Mining. 2022; 61(2): 93-103.
Vancouver Kılıçkap S. , Sarıçam İ. , Çevik M. , Cinar M. YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI. Scientific Mining Journal. 2022; 61(2): 93-103.
IEEE S. Kılıçkap , İ. Sarıçam , M. Çevik and M. Cinar , "YER ALTI KÖMÜR GAZLAŞTIRMASI ÜZERİNE GENEL BİR DERLEME VE ÖNEMLİ SAHA ÇALIŞMALARI", Scientific Mining Journal, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 93-103, Jun. 2022, doi:10.30797/madencilik.908179

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