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An example of examining the effect of tunnels on each other in large diameter double tube tunnels excavated in weak soils with 3D numerical analysis, Evaluation of Bolu Tunnel support systems

Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 3, 157 - 168, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.1054714

Abstract

Bolu Tunnel is located on the Ankara-Istanbul Highway projects which work started in 1993 and was opened to traffic in 2007. It was built as a 3-lane double tunnel. The tunnel lengths of the right tunnel are 2788 m and the left tunnel is 2954 m respectively. During the construction of the Bolu Tunnel, it was exposed to 2 earthquakes, and the Elmalık section of the tunnel, located at the entrance of Ankara, collapsed after the 12 November 1999 Düzce Earthquake. After this collapse, the tunnel route was changed. The Bolu Tunnel geologically passes through the tectonic block between the North Anatolian Fault Line mainline and the Düzce Fault. While the Istanbul side of the tunnel (Asarsuyu entrance) is located within the metacrystalline basement rocks, the Ankara side (Elmalık entrance) is located within the sedimentary rocks. These two units of the tunnel are cut by the Bakacak fault. At the entrance of Elmalık, where the biggest problems occurred during the excavation phase of the tunnel is located Elmalık fault.In this sectipn deformations of up to 1.2 m.. In addition, during the fault crossing of the Elmalık right tunnel, a collapse occurred in 1996, and in the 12 November 1999 Düzce Earthquake, the Elmalık left tunnel was completely closed. The problems experienced and the support systems developed in the Bolu Tunnels, which were designed with the New Austrian Tunneling Method, contain very valuable information in terms of tunneling. Within the scope of this study, Bolu Tunnel support systems were examined in 3D with the Flac3d program, the effect of the two tunnels on each other, the deformation changes in the top heading, bench and invert excavations were revealed.

References

  • Aygar E. B., 2000. critical approach to the new Austrian tunneling method in Bolu tunnels. MSc Thesis. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University; 2000.
  • Aygar E.B., 2007 Investigation of the Bolu Tunnel stability by means of static and dyanamic analyses. PhD Thesis. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University; 2007.
  • Aygar E.B.,2020. Evaluation of new Austrian tunnelling method applied to Bolu tunnel’s weak rocks Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 12 (2020) 541-556
  • Aygar E.B,2021a. An Evaluation on Causes Behind the Bolu Tunnel Collapse Following 1 the 12 November 2 1999 Düzce Earthquake: Seismic Action or Inadequate Tunnel Support Capacity, in Reviewer
  • Aygar E.B,2021b. An assessment on problems encountered during tunneling in Graphitic Schists, in Reviewer Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2020. Problems Encountered during a Railway Tunnel Excavation in Squeezing and Swelling Materials and Possible Engineering Measures: A Case Study from Turkey. Sustainability, 2020, 12, 1166, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031166
  • Aygar E.B. and Gokceoglu C. 2021a, Evaluation of Collapsed Zone in T24 Tunnel (Ankara-İstanbul High Speed Railway Project, Turkey), Euroengeo, 3rd European Regional Conference of IAEG
  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2021b. A special support design for a large-span tunnel crossing an activefault (T9 Tunnel, Ankara–Sivas High-Speed Railway Project, Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences, 80 (1), 37, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-020-09328-1
  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2021c. Analytical solutions and 3D numerical analyses of a shallow tunnel excavated in weak ground: a case from Turkey. International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 12 (1), 9, DOI: 10.1186/s40703-021-00142-7
  • Aygar E.B. and Gokceoglu C. 2021d, Evaluation of collapse mechanism and portal interaction of a High-Speed Railway Tunnel (T29 Tunnel, Turkey), Eurock 2021,Torino
  • Barla G., 2002. Tunnelling mechanics Tunnelling under squeezing rock conditions Tunnelling Mechanics - Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling (pp.169-268) Chapter: 3 Publisher: P.O.Box 1675 Editors: D. Kolymbas Barla G., 2016, Full-face excavation of large tunnels in difficult conditions, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, (2016) 294-303
  • Dalgıç, S., 2002, Tunneling in squeezing rock, the Bolu tunnel, Anatolian Motorway, Turkey Engineering Geology 2075
  • Geoconsult ZT GmbH. Bolu tunnel geological longitudinal profile Along left tube As built conditions, Asarsuyu portal to Elmalık portal. 1998
  • Geoconsult, 2002, Anatolian Motorway Stretch-2 Bolu Tunnel By-Pass Rock Support Class Distribuiton Goel R.K., Jethwa J.L. and Paithakan A.G. 1995. Tunnelling through the young Himalayas – a case history of the Maneri-Uttarkashi power tunnel. Engrg. Geol., 39, pp. 31-44.
  • Hoek, E. (2001). Big tunnels in bad rock, The 36th Karl Terzaghi lecture. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, A.S.C.E., 127(9), 726-740.
  • Hoek, E., 2007, Practical Rock Engineering, p 341, https://www.rocscience.com/assets/resources/learning/ hoek/Practical-Rock-Engineering-Full-Text.pdf
  • Hoek, E., 2012, Rock Support Interaction analysis for tunnels in weak rcok masses, https://www.rocscience.com/documents/pdfs/rocnews/winter2012/Rock-Support-Interaction-Analysis-for-Tunnels-Hoek.pdf
  • Hoek, E. and Marinos, P. (2000). Predicting tunnel squeezing. Tunnels and Tunnelling International. Part 1 – November 2000, Part 2 – December 2000.
  • Itasca, 2002. Flac3d User Manual Getting Started.
  • Jethwa, J. L. (1981). Evaluation of Rock Pressures in Tunnels through Squeezing Ground in Lower Himalayas. PhD thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Roorkee,India, 272.
  • KGM (General Directorate of Highways) (2013) Technical specifications of general directorate of highways Lettis W. & Asssociates Inc. & A.Barka, 2000, Geologic Characterisation of Fault Rupture Hazard, Gümüşova-Gerede Motorway project report.
  • Lunardi P., 2000a, The underground as a resource and reserve for new spaces; ADECO-RS as an effective tool to be able to realize them (part 1). Proceedings of the Bindi R, Cassani G World Tunnel Congress 2014 – Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.
  • Lunardi P., 2000b, The underground as a resource and reserve for new spaces; ADECO-RS as an effective tool to be able to realize them (part 2). Proceedings of the Bindi R, Cassani G World Tunnel Congress 2014 – Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.
  • Lunardi, P., 2008, Design and Construction of Tunnels, Analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS), 587 p
  • Lunardi P., 2014, The design and construction of tunnels using the approach based on the analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils, T&T Interneational ADECO-RS Approach, www.rocksoil.com
  • Lunardi, P., 2016. Evolution of design and construction approaches in the field of tunnelling: the results of applying ADECO-RS when constructing large underground works in urban areas. Procedia Engineering, 165, 484 – 496
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part One, Water Power 1964a; 453–7.
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part Two, Water Power 1964b; 511–5.
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part Three, Water Power 1965; 19–24.
  • Rabcewicz L, Golser J., 1973. Principles of dimensioning the supporting system for the “New Austrian Tunnelling Method”. Water Power, Marc, 88-93.
  • Sakurai, S. (1983). Displacement measurements associated with the design of underground openings. Proc. Int. Symp. Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Zurich 2, 1163-1178.
  • Schubert, W. 1996. Dealing with squeezing conditions in Alpine tunnels.” Rock Mech. Rock Engng. 29(3), 145-153.
  • Singh, B., J. L. Jethwa, A. R. Dube and B. Singh 1992."correlation between observed support pressure and rock massquality." Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 7(1).

Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi

Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 3, 157 - 168, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.1054714

Abstract

Bolu Tüneli Ankara İstanbul Otoyolu üzerinde yer almaktadır. Bolu Tüneli proje çalışmalarına 1993 yılında başlanmış olup 2007 yılında trafiğe açılmıştır. 3 şeritli çift tünel olarak inşa edilmiştir. Tünel uzunlukları sağ tünel 2788 m sol tünel ise 2954 m’dir. Bolu Tüneli inşası sırasında 2 kez sel ve 2 kez depreme maruz kalmış ve tünelin Ankara girişinde yeralan Elmalık kesiminde 12 Kasım 1999 Düzce Depremi sonrası göçük yaşanmıştır. Bu göçük sonrasında tünel güzergahı değiştirilmiştir. Bolu Tüneli jeolojik olarak Kuzey Anadolu Fay Hattı ana kolu ile Düzce Fayı arasındaki tektonik bloktan geçmektedir. Tünelin İstanbul tarafı (Asarsuyu girişi) metakristalin temel kayaları içerisinde yer almakta iken Ankara tarafı (Elmalık girişi) sedimanter kayaçlar içerisinde bulınmaktadır. Tünel bu iki birimi Bakacak fayı ile kesilmektedir. Tünelde kazı aşamasında en büyük sorunların meydana geldiği Elmalık girişinde Elmalık fayı bulunmakta olup, tünelin bu bölümlerinde 1.2 m’ye varan deformasyonlar ile karşılaşılmıştır. Ayrıca Elmalık sağ tünelde fay geçişi sırasında 1996 yılında göçük meydana gelmiş, 12 Kasım 1999 Düzce Depreminde ise Elmalık sol tünel tamamen kapanarak göçük oluşmuştur. Yeni Avusturya Tünelcilik Yöntemi ile projelendirilen Bolu Tünellerinde yaşanan sorunlar ve geliştirilen destek sistemleri tünelcilik açısından çok değerli bilgiler içermektedir. Bu çalışma kapsamında Bolu Tünel destek sistemleri Flac3d programı ile 3 boyutlu olarak incelenmiş, iki tünelin birbirine olan etkisi, üst yarı, alt yarı ve invert kazılarında meydana gelen değişimler ortaya konmuştur.

References

  • Aygar E. B., 2000. critical approach to the new Austrian tunneling method in Bolu tunnels. MSc Thesis. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University; 2000.
  • Aygar E.B., 2007 Investigation of the Bolu Tunnel stability by means of static and dyanamic analyses. PhD Thesis. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University; 2007.
  • Aygar E.B.,2020. Evaluation of new Austrian tunnelling method applied to Bolu tunnel’s weak rocks Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 12 (2020) 541-556
  • Aygar E.B,2021a. An Evaluation on Causes Behind the Bolu Tunnel Collapse Following 1 the 12 November 2 1999 Düzce Earthquake: Seismic Action or Inadequate Tunnel Support Capacity, in Reviewer
  • Aygar E.B,2021b. An assessment on problems encountered during tunneling in Graphitic Schists, in Reviewer Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2020. Problems Encountered during a Railway Tunnel Excavation in Squeezing and Swelling Materials and Possible Engineering Measures: A Case Study from Turkey. Sustainability, 2020, 12, 1166, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031166
  • Aygar E.B. and Gokceoglu C. 2021a, Evaluation of Collapsed Zone in T24 Tunnel (Ankara-İstanbul High Speed Railway Project, Turkey), Euroengeo, 3rd European Regional Conference of IAEG
  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2021b. A special support design for a large-span tunnel crossing an activefault (T9 Tunnel, Ankara–Sivas High-Speed Railway Project, Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences, 80 (1), 37, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-020-09328-1
  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2021c. Analytical solutions and 3D numerical analyses of a shallow tunnel excavated in weak ground: a case from Turkey. International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 12 (1), 9, DOI: 10.1186/s40703-021-00142-7
  • Aygar E.B. and Gokceoglu C. 2021d, Evaluation of collapse mechanism and portal interaction of a High-Speed Railway Tunnel (T29 Tunnel, Turkey), Eurock 2021,Torino
  • Barla G., 2002. Tunnelling mechanics Tunnelling under squeezing rock conditions Tunnelling Mechanics - Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling (pp.169-268) Chapter: 3 Publisher: P.O.Box 1675 Editors: D. Kolymbas Barla G., 2016, Full-face excavation of large tunnels in difficult conditions, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, (2016) 294-303
  • Dalgıç, S., 2002, Tunneling in squeezing rock, the Bolu tunnel, Anatolian Motorway, Turkey Engineering Geology 2075
  • Geoconsult ZT GmbH. Bolu tunnel geological longitudinal profile Along left tube As built conditions, Asarsuyu portal to Elmalık portal. 1998
  • Geoconsult, 2002, Anatolian Motorway Stretch-2 Bolu Tunnel By-Pass Rock Support Class Distribuiton Goel R.K., Jethwa J.L. and Paithakan A.G. 1995. Tunnelling through the young Himalayas – a case history of the Maneri-Uttarkashi power tunnel. Engrg. Geol., 39, pp. 31-44.
  • Hoek, E. (2001). Big tunnels in bad rock, The 36th Karl Terzaghi lecture. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, A.S.C.E., 127(9), 726-740.
  • Hoek, E., 2007, Practical Rock Engineering, p 341, https://www.rocscience.com/assets/resources/learning/ hoek/Practical-Rock-Engineering-Full-Text.pdf
  • Hoek, E., 2012, Rock Support Interaction analysis for tunnels in weak rcok masses, https://www.rocscience.com/documents/pdfs/rocnews/winter2012/Rock-Support-Interaction-Analysis-for-Tunnels-Hoek.pdf
  • Hoek, E. and Marinos, P. (2000). Predicting tunnel squeezing. Tunnels and Tunnelling International. Part 1 – November 2000, Part 2 – December 2000.
  • Itasca, 2002. Flac3d User Manual Getting Started.
  • Jethwa, J. L. (1981). Evaluation of Rock Pressures in Tunnels through Squeezing Ground in Lower Himalayas. PhD thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Roorkee,India, 272.
  • KGM (General Directorate of Highways) (2013) Technical specifications of general directorate of highways Lettis W. & Asssociates Inc. & A.Barka, 2000, Geologic Characterisation of Fault Rupture Hazard, Gümüşova-Gerede Motorway project report.
  • Lunardi P., 2000a, The underground as a resource and reserve for new spaces; ADECO-RS as an effective tool to be able to realize them (part 1). Proceedings of the Bindi R, Cassani G World Tunnel Congress 2014 – Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.
  • Lunardi P., 2000b, The underground as a resource and reserve for new spaces; ADECO-RS as an effective tool to be able to realize them (part 2). Proceedings of the Bindi R, Cassani G World Tunnel Congress 2014 – Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.
  • Lunardi, P., 2008, Design and Construction of Tunnels, Analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS), 587 p
  • Lunardi P., 2014, The design and construction of tunnels using the approach based on the analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils, T&T Interneational ADECO-RS Approach, www.rocksoil.com
  • Lunardi, P., 2016. Evolution of design and construction approaches in the field of tunnelling: the results of applying ADECO-RS when constructing large underground works in urban areas. Procedia Engineering, 165, 484 – 496
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part One, Water Power 1964a; 453–7.
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part Two, Water Power 1964b; 511–5.
  • Rabcewicz L. The New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Part Three, Water Power 1965; 19–24.
  • Rabcewicz L, Golser J., 1973. Principles of dimensioning the supporting system for the “New Austrian Tunnelling Method”. Water Power, Marc, 88-93.
  • Sakurai, S. (1983). Displacement measurements associated with the design of underground openings. Proc. Int. Symp. Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Zurich 2, 1163-1178.
  • Schubert, W. 1996. Dealing with squeezing conditions in Alpine tunnels.” Rock Mech. Rock Engng. 29(3), 145-153.
  • Singh, B., J. L. Jethwa, A. R. Dube and B. Singh 1992."correlation between observed support pressure and rock massquality." Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 7(1).

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ebu Bekir AYGAR> (Primary Author)
FUGRO SIAL EARTH SCIENCES CONSULTANCY AND ENGINEERING
0000-0002-5738-4602
Türkiye

Publication Date September 30, 2022
Application Date January 7, 2022
Acceptance Date May 9, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 61, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { madencilik1054714, journal = {Scientific Mining Journal}, issn = {2564-7024}, eissn = {2587-2613}, address = {Selanik Cad. No: 19/4 06650 Kızılay-Çankaya / ANKARA - TURKEY}, publisher = {Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey}, year = {2022}, volume = {61}, number = {3}, pages = {157 - 168}, doi = {10.30797/madencilik.1054714}, title = {Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Aygar, Ebu Bekir} }
APA Aygar, E. B. (2022). Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi . Scientific Mining Journal , 61 (3) , 157-168 . DOI: 10.30797/madencilik.1054714
MLA Aygar, E. B. "Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi" . Scientific Mining Journal 61 (2022 ): 157-168 <http://www.mining.org.tr/en/pub/issue/72907/1054714>
Chicago Aygar, E. B. "Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi". Scientific Mining Journal 61 (2022 ): 157-168
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - An example of examining the effect of tunnels on each other in large diameter double tube tunnels excavated in weak soils with 3D numerical analysis, Evaluation of Bolu Tunnel support systems AU - Ebu BekirAygar Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.30797/madencilik.1054714 DO - 10.30797/madencilik.1054714 T2 - Scientific Mining Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 157 EP - 168 VL - 61 IS - 3 SN - 2564-7024-2587-2613 M3 - doi: 10.30797/madencilik.1054714 UR - https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.1054714 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Scientific Mining Journal Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi %A Ebu Bekir Aygar %T Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi %D 2022 %J Scientific Mining Journal %P 2564-7024-2587-2613 %V 61 %N 3 %R doi: 10.30797/madencilik.1054714 %U 10.30797/madencilik.1054714
ISNAD Aygar, Ebu Bekir . "Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi". Scientific Mining Journal 61 / 3 (September 2022): 157-168 . https://doi.org/10.30797/madencilik.1054714
AMA Aygar E. B. Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi. Mining. 2022; 61(3): 157-168.
Vancouver Aygar E. B. Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi. Scientific Mining Journal. 2022; 61(3): 157-168.
IEEE E. B. Aygar , "Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı çift tüp tünellerde tünellerin birbirine olan etkisinin 3 boyutlu sayısal analizler ile incelenmesine bir örnek, Bolu Tüneli destek sistemlerinin değerlendirilmesi", Scientific Mining Journal, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 157-168, Sep. 2022, doi:10.30797/madencilik.1054714

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